In past few years, there has been tremendous increase in the demand for needle-free vaccines due to obvious choice to more comfortable oral delivery over parenteral administration. Oral vaccines hold potential to take immunization to new level of excellence, due to more adherence to vaccination regime.
For highly infectious diseases such as seasonal flu, people prefer oral vaccines to avoid risk of contaminated needles & syringes to health workers, require less qualified health workers and also are less costly than injectable vaccines. The first oral vaccines came into market was Sabin attenuated strains trivalent polio vaccine (tOPV), which witnessed huge success since in terms of immunization and population acceptance in Americas, Europe and Western Pacific, since 1999.
Oral polio vaccines stimulate mucosal immunity and thus is more effective in transmission of virus. With the development of oral vaccines global efforts to control contagious diseases, such as cholera and flu, are entering a new level as they offer an opportunity to prevent outbreak among population living in vulnerable areas.
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Oral vaccines are also preferred for immunization for wildlife population for dreadful diseases such as rabies. Some of the examples of commercial oral vaccines include Vaxchora (cholera), Vivotif, (typhoid), RABORAL V-RG (rabies), Tetramune, Rotateq, Rotashield, (Rotavirus), Dukoral (Cholera, diarrhea), LUIVAC (respiratory infection), Biostim (Klebsiella) and many others.
The global market for oral vaccines is primarily driven by increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in developing countries, bioterrorism, resistance to existing vaccines, etc. In addition to this, patient adherence to needle-free vaccine regime, preference to oral vaccines by children and geriatric population, cost effective nature, recent FDA approvals to oral vaccines for diseases such as cholera etc. are some of the factors expected to fuel the growth of global oral vaccines market.
However, compromised immunogenicity in children and cost for maintaining a cold chain, inaccessibility in remote areas etc. are some of the factors limiting growth of global oral vaccines market. For instance, maintenance of cold chain for oral vaccines across the globe costs over US$ 300 Mn per year.
Development of new delivery system for oral vaccines may result in more efficiency of these products and may result in less failure rate for clinical trials. Development of low cost oral vaccines for new indications not yet covered by existing vaccines presents huge opportunity for researchers in this field as this may increase the uptake of countries with low immunization accessibility.
Currently, several oral vaccine products are being evaluated in clinical trials, but they require more extensive human studies to establish the efficacy.
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The global market for oral vaccines is segmented on basis of products, disease indication/species, end user and geography:
Live Attenuated Vaccines
Others (Ribosomal fractions, Antigenic preparations)
Respiratory Infections Influenza
Others (adenovirus, E. coli, Hemophilic etc.)
Based on end user, the global oral vaccines market has been classified as hospitals, clinics, government vaccination centers, and research institutes. Government vaccination centers are expected to contribute highest market share in the global oral vaccines market due to strong patient pool towards national immunization programs.
Based on product type, the global oral vaccines market has been classified as live attenuated vaccines, killed/inactivated vaccines, recombinant vaccines and others (ribosomal fractions, antigenic preparations). Among all product types, killed/inactivates vaccines segment is expected to take maximum share in the global market due to high adoption for safety and efficacy.
On the basis of regional presence, global oral vaccines market is segmented into five key regions viz. North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. North America is expected to lead the global market due to existence of highly planned healthcare reimbursement schemes and power of purchasing expensive vaccines In the U.S. Oral vaccines hold special advantage in developing countries where there is a high incidence of infectious diseases and also simple logistics for oral vaccines are highly effective for mass immunization programs.
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Some of the players operating in global oral vaccines market are GlaxoSmithKline Plc., PaxVax Corporation, Merial, Inc., Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. (a subsidiary of Merck & Co. Inc.), VALNEVA Canada Inc., QUÍMICA SUIZA S.A., Immunitor, Inc., Aventis (Sanofi S.A.), Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Swiss Serum and Vaccine Institute Berne, Bull Bio NCIPD Ltd., Vaxart, Inc., Shantha Biotechnics, Crucell (Janssen Global Services, LLC) and others. Development of oral HIV vaccines is expected to bring a revolutionary change in the infectious disease landscape in some of the African and Latin American countries.
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